Satpura Tiger Reserve
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Flora And Fauna

Introduction of Flora

Combination of various climate and edaphic factor at different attitudinal level gives rise to typical rich and luxuriant tropical flora in this protected area. Many rare and endemic plants are found in this part of the country. In all following different plant communities are identified in the protected area.

  • The moist miscellaneous forests occur on higher altitude is characterised by Mangifera indica, Syzygium Cuminii, Terminalia Chebula and Ficus spp.
  • Mixed forest with Terminalia tomentosa and Annogeissus latifolia occurs on gentler slopes along foot hills
  • Low quality mixed forest occur where underlying rock is sandstone and carries high percentage of Chloroxylon swietenia, Lagerstroemia parviflora, and Lannea grandis.
  • Good quality teak forest having a high percentage of teak with dense under story of Bamboo, occurs where soil is derived from trap.
  • Low quality teak forest grows on similar soils on much drier sites and are characterised by the undergrowth of lantana and Hyptis sp.
  • Teak community with tall and well formed stems occurs on alluvium soil along river banks.
  • Dry peninsular Sal community, which spreads over an area about 140 on Pachmarhi plateau, this is the western limit of distribution of species and appears to be the highest limit of dry Sal and gives appearance of an island of Sal surrounded by Teak and miscellaneous species.

Satpura Tiger Reserve is rich in Bryophytes and Pteridophytes. There are various types of ferns and fern allies. Recent studies have recorded 138 species of Pteridophytes in Pachmarhi hills. Pteridophytes such as Psilotum, Lycopodium, Osmunda, Cyathea, Botrychium, Ophioglossum, Asplenium, Isoetes, Acrostichum are endangered and are on the verge of extinction. Among Broyphytes there are 83 species of 16 families.

Species of orchids that have restricted distribution include Eulophia, Aerides, Dendrobium, Anervilia, Platanathera. Two endangered insectivorous species- Drosera and Utricularia have small population as well as restricted distribution. A species of bamboo i.e. Bamboosa polymorpha is represented by only a few clumps found in Bori Sanctuary.

Introduction of Fauna

Since the tract consists of Varying altitudes, topography climate and forests, it also contains almost all the wildlife species found in the Central India. There are 52 species of mammals, 300 species of birds and 31 species of reptiles are found here. Nature has endowed this area with luxuriant flora and rich fauna. Tiger, Panther, Gaur, Sambar, Cheetal, Barking deer, Chausingha, Chinkara, Bluebull, Wild boar, Sloth bear, Hyena are seen easily. The small carnivore include Jungle cat, Palm civet and small Indian civet. There are two important arboreal mammals the Indian Giant squirrel and the large brown flying squirrel. The only record of Leaf nosed bat (Rhinopus lucdus) in central India is around the Pachmarhi plateau. Important reptiles are fresh water crocodile, the monitor lizard and Indian soft shell turtle.
Panthers were in abundance and bear common. Sambar was the commonest deer. At present a project for re introduction or Barasingha is in progress at Bori. The Indian Bison is found on high hill and slopes.
The bird life varied specially in the area adjoining cultivation Peafowl, Grey jungle fowl, Green pigeon, Peacock were common in the forests, while Grey partridges, several types of quails, Snipes and other water birds are found in the open area and water bodies.
The several sand stone cliffs around Pachmarhi plateau provide diverse habitat. The edges along the cliffs are significant resting and roasting sites of long billed vulture (Gyps indicus) and white Rumped vulture (Gyps Bengalensis). Like wise such large cracks have colonies of bats. Prominent among them Fruit bat, Flying fox and short nose Fruit bat.
The riparian areas constitute the most important habitat for the Indian giant squirrel. The large crowned tall trees with continuous canopy are ideal for supporting their population, providing nesting sites and access to fruit trees. The species occurs in valley portion of Tiger Reserve and performs a significant function of dispersal of wild fruits and seeds.
Fish of various types also found in large number in the streams and rivers. In the deeper holes even up to some elevation crocodiles were reported to have been seen in Sonbhadra River.

Eurasian Otter:- ---------------------